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Gibraltar (deutsch [ɡiˈbʁaltaʁ], englisch [dʒɪˈbɹɒltə], spanisch [ xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) ist ein britisches Überseegebiet an der Südspitze der Iberischen Halbinsel. Die reichen Fischgründe vor der Iberischen Halbinsel waren immer wieder Auslöser des Fischereistreits von Gibraltar zwischen Spanien und dem zum. Gibraltar wurde während des Spanischen Erbfolgekrieges durch England erobert und erhielt den Status einer Kronkolonie. Spanien verlangte. Gibraltar gehört zum Vereinigten Königreich, liegt aber im Süden von Spanien. wurde der Gorham's Cave Komplex im Rock of Gibraltar zum. sind die frei lebenden Berberaffen, die Tropfsteinhöhle, der Leuchtturm sowie die in den Fels geschlagenen Verteidigungsanlagen („Gibraltar“, in Wikipedia).
Die reichen Fischgründe vor der Iberischen Halbinsel waren immer wieder Auslöser des Fischereistreits von Gibraltar zwischen Spanien und dem zum. Gibraltar gehört zum Vereinigten Königreich, liegt aber im Süden von Spanien. wurde der Gorham's Cave Komplex im Rock of Gibraltar zum. „Mons Calpe“) aus: bunai.co ) Syria Die römische Provinz Syria wurde im Jahre 63 v. Chr. vom Feldherrn Gnaeus Pompeius. Dieses Werk darf von dir verbreitet werden — vervielfältigt, verbreitet und öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden neu zusammengestellt werden — abgewandelt und bearbeitet werden Zu den folgenden Bedingungen: Namensnennung remarkable, PartnerbГ¶rse Vergleich consider Du musst angemessene Urheber- und Rechteangaben machen, einen Link zur Lizenz beifügen und angeben, ob Änderungen vorgenommen wurden. Dies ist eine exzellente Datei in der Wikipedia auf Englisch Featured pictures und wird als eine der hervorragendsten Bild-Dateien gewertet. Dazu haben viele spanische Visit web page in die englische Sprache Einzug gehalten. Das liegt daran, dass alle sich gegenseitig kontrollieren und zur Not auch mal die Polizei anrufen und die Autonummer durchgeben. Tipp: Rechtzeitig buchen, da Gibraltar beliebter ist, als angenommen und die Zahl Beste Spielothek in Gresten finden Hotels begrenzt ist. Dezember Seitals die Englische Krone die Herrschaft über die Halbinsel erlangte und im Vertrag von Utrecht zugesichert bekam, versucht Spanien, die britische Kolonie zurückzuerlangen. British Forces Broadcasting Service, archiviert vom Original am 3. Intute,archiviert vom Original am Attribution is required. Das Hauptpostamt ist in der Main-Street zu finden. Sightline Media Group, 3. Check this outabgerufen am Juni bis zum 4. September und versenkten dabei einen Hilfskreuzer im Hafen. Drei Tage später begann die Invasion Marokkos mit Wichtig: Auto- Motorrad- und auch Fahrradfahrer! Die berühmten Affen finden sich aber auch an der Endstation.
Gibraltar Wikipedia - Account OptionsBritish Forces Broadcasting Service, archiviert vom Original am 3. Internationaler Sportgerichtshof , 2. Wenn du etwas zu ergänzen hast, sei mutig und ergänze sie. Die Bevölkerung Gibraltars wählt das siebzehnköpfige Gibraltar Parliament. Reist man mit dem Auto an, sollte man es in Spanien parken, da es in Gibraltar entweder keine Stellplätze gibt oder diese recht teuer sind. Die Kontrollen sind allerdings sehr lasch und entsprechen nicht den Standards der Schengener Verträge, wie man sie etwa bei der Ausreise nach London kennt. British Overseas Territory in United Kingdom. Anthem Coat of arms Official flag other flags. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians continue their studies at university level. Sir Alexander WoodfordGovernor. Paragraph 83, p. This section needs additional citations for verification. Main please click for source Moorish Gibraltar. Gibraltar Rugby Football Union applied for membership of Europe's governing body for rugby. Seit langem kommt es zu Spannungen zwischen dem Vereinigten Königreich und Spanien, weil Spanien die Hoheit über Gibraltar wiedererlangen möchte. Will man von Das Wird Schmutzig Spiel Geld abheben, sollte man darauf achten, welche Währung der Automat denn ausgibt. An der Südspitze Gibraltars kann man bei klarer Sicht von hier Afrika sehen. Die Muslime beherrschten Gibraltar bis zur Reconquista  von bis erstmals kastilisch durch Ferdinand IV. Jahrhundert zu suchen.
The Jews, for the most part, are shop keepers and brokers They have a synagogue and openly practice the ceremonies of their religion, notwithstanding the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht The Genoese are traders, but the greater part of them are fishermen, traders and gardeners.
Life for the ordinary soldiers of the garrison was tedious and harsh, with corporal punishment administered for even the most trivial offences.
A drummer in the Lancashire Fusiliers became famous for being the most-flogged man in the British Army, receiving 30, lashes during his 14 years stationed at Gibraltar.
At Middle Hill Battery , guards had to be posted to prevent soldiers from deserting by lowering themselves on ropes down the cliff face.
The fortifications of Gibraltar were modernised and upgraded in the s with the construction of new batteries, bastions and curtain walls. The driving force behind this programme was the highly experienced Colonel later Major General William Green , who was to play a key role a few years later as chief engineer of Gibraltar.
Britain's successes in the Seven Years' War had left it with expensive commitments in the Americas that had to be paid for and had catalysed the formation of an anti-British coalition in Europe.
The Great Siege of Gibraltar lasted from 24 June to 7 February and remains one of the longest sieges endured by the British Armed Forces , as well as being one of the longest continuous sieges in history.
A combined Spanish and French fleet blockaded Gibraltar from the sea, while on the land side an enormous army was engaged in constructing forts , redoubts , entrenchments , and batteries from which to attack Gibraltar.
The Spanish committed increasing number of troops and ships to the siege, postponing the planned invasion of England by the Armada of Vincent , delivering reinforcements of 1, men and an abundance of supplies.
The British defenders continued to resist every attempt to capture Gibraltar by assault but supplies again began to run low.
On 12 April Vice Admiral George Darby 's squadron of 29 ships of the line escorting store ships from England laden for Gibraltar entered the bay.
The Spanish fleet was unable to intercept Darby's relief. The Spanish, frustrated by this failure, began a barrage of the town, causing great panic and terror among the civilian population.
Unable to starve the garrison out, the French and Spanish attempted further attacks by land and sea.
The night before the Grand Attack on 27 November , the British garrison filed silently out of their defence works and made a surprise sortie , routing the besieging infantry in their trenches and postponed the grand assault on The Rock for some time.
On 13 September the Bourbon allies launched their great attack; fighting men, both French and Spanish, aboard ten of the newly engineered ' floating batteries ' with  heavy guns, as well as 18 ships of the line, 40 Spanish gunboats and 20 bomb-vessels  with a total of 30, sailors and marines.
They were supported by 86 land guns  and 35, Spanish and French troops 7,  —8,  French on land intending to assault the fortifications once they had been demolished.
But the garrison replied with red-hot shot to set fire to and sink the attacker's floating batteries and warships in the Bay. The British destroyed three of the floating batteries,  which blew up as the 'red-hot shot' did its job.
The other seven batteries were scuttled by the Spanish. In addition men on board the ships many of whom drowned were casualties.
In Britain the Admiralty considered plans for a major relief of Gibraltar, opting to send a larger, but slower fleet, rather than a smaller faster one.
Vincent on 9 October. The following evening a gale blew up, scattering the Spanish and French fleet and allowing Howe to sail unopposed into Gibraltar.
A total of 34 ships of the line escorted 31 transport ships, which delivered supplies, food, and ammunition.
The fleet also brought the 25th , 59th , and 97th regiments of foot bringing the total number of the garrison to over 7,   Howe then sailed out and fought an indecisive battle with the combined allied fleet before withdrawing to Britain in line with his orders.
The siege was continued for some months longer, but in the spring of a preliminary peace agreement brought the cessation of hostilities.
Finally, in February the siege was lifted. The outcome of the Great Siege made it politically impossible for the British government to again consider trading away Gibraltar, even though King George III warned that it would be the source "of another war, or at least of a constant lurking enmity" and expressed his wish "if possible to be rid of Gibraltar I shall not think peace complete if we do not get rid of Gibraltar.
Britain's loss of North American colonies in led to much of her trade being redirected to new markets in India and the East Indies. The favoured route to the east was via Egypt , even before the Suez Canal had been built, and Gibraltar was the first British port reached by ships heading there.
The new maritime traffic gave Gibraltar a greatly increased role as a trading port. At the same time, it was a haven in the western Mediterranean from the disruption of the Napoleonic Wars.
Many of the new immigrants were Genoese people who had fled Napoleon's annexation of the old Republic of Genoa. Portuguese made up another 20 per cent, Spaniards The young Benjamin Disraeli described the inhabitants of Gibraltar as a mixture of "Moors with costumes as radiant as a rainbow or Eastern melodrama, Jews with gaberdines and skull-caps, Genoese, Highlanders and Spanish.
The American naval officer Alexander Slidell Mackenzie , writing in , described the market traders and shoppers in what is now John Mackintosh Square :.
The high handed hauteur of his majesty's officer, as he lounges at a corner in utter scorn of the busy crew of bargainers; the supple cit[izen] who bows breast low to him in hope of a nod of condescension Gibraltar was an unhealthy place to live due to its poor sanitation and living conditions.
It was repeatedly ravaged by epidemics of yellow fever and cholera , which killed thousands of the inhabitants and members of the garrison.
In July a French and Spanish naval force fought the two Battles of Algeciras off Gibraltar, which ended in disaster for the Spanish when two of their largest warships each mistook the other for the enemy, engaged each other, collided, caught fire and exploded, killing nearly 2, Spanish sailors.
It thus became the first newspaper in the world to report the victory at Trafalgar, two weeks ahead of The Times. In the years after Trafalgar, Gibraltar became a major supply base for supporting the Spanish uprising against Napoleon.
French forces reached as far as San Roque, just north of Gibraltar, but did not attempt to target Gibraltar itself as they believed that it was impregnable.
Gibraltar faced no further military threat for a century. After peace returned, Gibraltar underwent major changes during the reformist governorship of General Sir George Don , who took up his position in The damage caused by the Great Siege had long since been repaired, but Gibraltar was still essentially a medieval town in its layout and narrow streets.
A lack of proper drainage had been a major contributing factor in the epidemics that had frequently ravaged the fortress. Don implemented improved sanitation and drainage as well as introducing street lighting, rebuilding St Bernard's Hospital to serve the civilian population and initiating the construction of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity to serve Gibraltar's Protestant civilians.
An Exchange and Commercial Library was founded in , with the Exchange Committee initially focused on furthering the interests of merchants based in the fortress.
The Committee evolved into a local civilian voice in government, although it had no real powers. In the same year, the Gibraltar Police Force was established, modelled on London's pioneering Metropolitan Police Service ,  and a Supreme Court was set up to try civil, criminal and mixed cases.
The economic importance of Gibraltar changed following the invention of steamships ; the first one to reach Gibraltar's harbour arrived there in Transshipment, which had previously been Gibraltar's principal economic mainstay, was largely replaced by the much less lucrative work of servicing visiting steamships through coaling, victualling and ferrying of goods.
Although Gibraltar became a key coaling station where British steamships refuelled on the way to Alexandria or Cape Horn , the economic changes resulted in a prolonged depression that lasted until near the end of the century.
The poor economy meant that Gibraltar's population barely changed between and , but it was still relatively more prosperous than the severely impoverished south of Spain.
Visiting Gibraltar in the midth century, the English writer Richard Ford wrote in his Handbook for Travellers in Spain that "the differences of nations and costumes are very curious: a motley masquerade is held in this halfway house between Europe, Asia, and Africa, where every man appears in his own dress and speaks his own language.
Civilization and barbarism clash here indeed The entire commerce of the Peninsula seems condensed into this microcosmus, where all creeds and nations meet, and most of them adepts at the one grand game of beggar my neighbour.
Relations with Spain during the 19th century were generally amicable. The problem arose after Spain imposed tariffs on foreign manufactured goods in a bid to protect Spain's own fledgling industrial enterprises.
Tobacco was also heavily taxed, providing one of the government's principal sources of revenue.
The inevitable result was that Gibraltar, where cheap tobacco and goods were readily available, became a centre of intensive smuggling activity.
From the first early opening of the gates there is to be seen a stream of Spanish men, women and children, horses and a few caleches, passing into the town where they remain moving about from shop to shop until about noon.
The human beings enter the Garrison in their natural sizes, but quit it swathed and swelled out with our cotton manufactures, and padded with tobacco, while the carriages and beasts, which come light and springy into the place, quit it scarcely able to drag or bear their burdens.
The Spanish authorities bear part in this traffic, by receiving a bribe from every individual passing the Lines, their persons and their purposes being thoroughly known to them.
Some of these people take hardware goods, as well as cotton and tobacco, into Spain. The problem was eventually reduced by imposing duties on imported goods, which made them much less attractive to smugglers and raised funds to make much-needed improvements to sanitation.
A Colonel Sayer, who was garrisoned at Gibraltar in the s, described the town as "composed of small and crowded dwellings, ill ventilated, badly drained and crammed with human beings.
Upwards of 15, persons are confined within a space covering a square mile [2. One doctor commented that "the open street is much more desirable than many of the lodgings of the lower orders of Gibraltar.
By the end of the 19th century, the "Gibraltarians" were given an official identity for the first time. The emergence of the Gibraltarians as a distinct group owed much to the pressure on housing in the territory and the need to control the numbers of the civilian population, as Gibraltar was still first and foremost a military fortress.
Two Orders in Council of and stipulated that no child of alien parent could be born in Gibraltar, no foreigners could claim a right of residence and that only Gibraltar-born inhabitants were entitled to reside there; everyone else needed permits, unless they were employees of the British Crown.
In addition to the 14, Gibraltarians, there were also British people, Maltese and from other British dominions.
By the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th, Gibraltar's future as a British colony was in serious doubt. Its economic value was diminishing, as a new generation of steamships with a much longer range no longer needed to stop there to refuel en route to more distant ports.
Its military value was also increasingly in question due to advances in military technology. New long-range guns firing high-explosive shells could easily reach Gibraltar from across the bay or in the Spanish hinterland, while the development of torpedoes meant that ships at anchor in the bay were also vulnerable.
A Spanish proposal to swap Gibraltar for Ceuta on the other side of the Strait was considered but was eventually rejected. From , the Royal Navy was greatly expanded and both Gibraltar and Malta were equipped with new, torpedo-proof harbours and expanded, modernised dockyards.
The value of the naval base was soon apparent when the First World War broke out in August The naval base was heavily used by Allied warships for resupplying and repairs.
The Bay of Gibraltar was also used as a forming-up point for Allied convoys, while German U-boats stalked the Strait looking for targets.
On two occasions, Gibraltar's guns unsuccessfully fired on two U-boats travelling through the Strait. The restoration of peace inevitably meant a reduction in military expenditure, but this was more than offset by a large increase in liner and cruise ship traffic to Gibraltar.
British liners travelling to and from India and South Africa customarily stopped there, as did French, Italian and Greek liners travelling to and from America.
Oil bunkering became a major industry alongside coaling. An airfield was established in on the isthmus linking Gibraltar to Spain.
Civil society was reformed as well; in an Executive Council and an elected City Council were established to advise the governor, in the first step towards self-government of the territory.
The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July presented Gibraltar with major security concerns, as it was initially on the front lines of the conflict.
The ultimately successful rebellion led by General Francisco Franco broke out across the Strait in Morocco, and the Spanish Republican government sought on several occasions to regain control of the Nationalist -controlled area around Algeciras.
Although Gibraltar was not directly affected by the fighting, the war caused significant disruption. An undetermined number of Spanish refugees, perhaps as many as 10, persons, fled to Gibraltar, resulting in severe overcrowding.
In May , one of the ships involved in the patrol, the destroyer HMS Hunter , hit a Nationalist mine and had to be towed back to Gibraltar with eight of her crew dead.
On one hand, the British authorities, the Anglican and Catholic churches and the Gibraltarian moneyed class supported the Nationalists in the War, while the working class sided with the Republicans.
The outbreak of the Second World War in September did not initially cause much disruption in Gibraltar, as Spain and Italy were neutral at the time.
The situation changed drastically after April when Germany invaded France , with Italy joining the invasion in June The British Government feared that Spain would also enter the war and it was decided to evacuate the entire civilian population of Gibraltar in May A new and powerful naval group called Force H was established at Gibraltar to control the entrance to the Mediterranean and support Allied forces in North Africa, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.
During the Battle of the Atlantic, Gibraltar played a key role. Gibraltar was directly attacked, both overtly and covertly, on several occasions during the war.
Vichy French aircraft carried out bombing attacks in after the surprise attack of their fleet by the royal navy and there were sporadic raids from Italian and German long-range aircraft, though the damage caused was not significant.
Despite Franco's willingness to overlook German and Italian activities in and around the Bay of Gibraltar, he decided not to join Hitler's planned Operation Felix to seize the territory.
It relied on grain imports from the Americas, which would certainly have been cut off had Franco gone to war with the Allies. German and Italian spies kept a constant watch on Gibraltar and sought to carry out sabotage operations, sometimes successfully.
The Italians repeatedly carried out raids on Gibraltar's harbour using human torpedoes and divers operating from the Spanish shore, damaging a number of merchant ships and sinking one.
Although Gibraltar's civilian inhabitants had started to return as early as April , the last evacuees did not arrive back home until as late as February The immediate problem after VJ Day was a lack of shipping, as all available vessels were needed to bring troops home, but the longer-term problem was a lack of civilian housing.
The garrison was relocated to the southern end of the peninsula to free up space and military accommodation was temporarily reused to house the returning civilians.
A programme to build housing projects was implemented, though progress was slow due to shortages of building materials.
By , over 2, flats had either been built or were under construction. In the war's aftermath, Gibraltar took decisive steps towards implementing civilian self-governance over most issues of public policy.
Women were given the right to vote in , and in a Legislative Council was established. That same year Hassan became the first Mayor of Gibraltar.
This inevitably caused tension and controversy if the Governor and Legislative Council disagreed, but in the British Government agreed to confine the powers of the Governor to matters of defence, security and foreign relations.
The old title of "Colony of Gibraltar" was dropped and the territory was renamed as the City of Gibraltar.
Gibraltar's post-war relationship with Spain was marred by an intensification of the long-running dispute over the territory's sovereignty.
Although Spain had not attempted to use military force to regain Gibraltar since , the question of sovereignty was still present.
Disputes over smuggling and the sea frontier between Gibraltar and Spain had repeatedly caused diplomatic tensions during the 19th century.
This originally had been an undemarcated strip of sand on the isthmus between the British and Spanish lines of fortifications, about 1 kilometre 0.
Over the years, however, Britain took control of most of the neutral zone, much of which is now occupied by Gibraltar's airport.
This expansion provoked repeated protests from Spain. Spain's push to regain sovereignty over Gibraltar was fuelled by the decolonisation agenda of the United Nations, which had been initiated in In that year, Britain had listed Gibraltar among other "Overseas Dependent Territories" in conjunction with the drive towards decolonisation, but it was not appreciated at the time that Gibraltar was in a unique position; due to the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, it could only be British or Spanish and could not gain independence.
The British government followed a policy of allowing its colonies to become self-governing entities before giving them the option of independence.
Almost all took it, choosing to become independent republics. That option was not available to Gibraltar under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, which required that if Britain ever relinquished control it was to be handed back to Spain.
The dispute initially took the form of symbolic protests and a campaign by Spanish diplomats and the state-controlled media.
From , Spain imposed increasingly stringent restrictions on trade and the movements of vehicles and people across the border with Gibraltar.
The following year, Spain closed its airspace to aircraft taking off or landing at Gibraltar International Airport. In , after the passing of the Gibraltar Constitution Order , to which Spain strongly objected, the frontier was closed completely and Gibraltar's telecommunications links through Spain were cut.
The Spanish decision had major consequences not only for the political relationship between Spain and the United Kingdom, but for the people of Gibraltar, many of whom had relatives or homes in Spain.
As one of the Gibraltarians who suffered the closure of the frontier explains:. The saddest sight was seeing people behind the wire fences on both sides of the land frontier yelling at the top of their voices across the wide dividing space to enquire about the state of relatives, as telephone communications had been cut by the Spaniards.
Local housewives with Spanish relatives in the Campo area kept their radios tuned to the nearby Spanish stations for news of family members who were gravely ill.
In critical cases the parties concerned would rush to Spain via Tangiers but unfortunately sometimes the patient was dead and buried by the time they arrived.
The Spanish authorities would not allow access across the land frontier even on compassionate grounds.
Franco's death in led to the beginnings of diplomatic movement between Britain and Spain on the Gibraltar issue, though not immediately.
Although Britain promised to "honour the freely and democratically expressed wishes of the people of Gibraltar",  Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher indicated in the House of Commons that sovereignty would be on the table, in a change from the previous policy.
However, the border was not reopened due to "technical issues" — code for unresolved issues between the two governments — and the agreement was strongly opposed by many Gibraltarians, who did not wish their sovereignty to be under discussion and objected to the lack of Gibraltarian representatives at the talks.
The border was finally fully reopened on 4—5 February After the border reopened, the British government reduced the military presence in Gibraltar by closing the naval dockyard.
The British garrison, which had been present since , was withdrawn in following defence cutbacks at the end of the Cold War.
A number of military units continue to be stationed in Gibraltar under the auspices of British Forces Gibraltar ; the garrison was replaced with locally recruited units of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, while a Royal Navy presence is continued through the Gibraltar Squadron , responsible for overseeing the security of Gibraltar's territorial waters.
The military cutbacks inevitably had major implications for Gibraltar's economy, which had up to that point depended largely on defence expenditure.
The government also encouraged the development of new industries such as financial services, duty-free shopping , casinos and Internet gambling.
To facilitate the territory's economic expansion, a major programme of land reclamation was carried out; a tenth of Gibraltar's present-day land area was reclaimed from the sea.
These initiatives proved enormously successful. By , Chief Minister Peter Caruana was able to boast that Gibraltar's economic success had made it "one of the most affluent communities in the entire world.
Grand Casemates Square , renovated and pedestrianised in the late s. Ocean Village Marina , a luxury marina resort with premier berths for yachts.
The new terminal of Gibraltar International Airport , opened in , with the Rock of Gibraltar behind. Gibraltar's relationship with Spain continued to be a sensitive subject.
By , Britain and Spain had proposed an agreement to share sovereignty over Gibraltar. However, it was opposed by the government of Gibraltar, which put it to a referendum in November Although both governments dismissed the outcome as having no legal weight,  the outcome of the referendum caused the talks to stall and the British government accepted that it would be unrealistic to try to reach an agreement without the support of the people of Gibraltar.
The Royal Navy 's base in Gibraltar. Gibraltar portal. Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration. Godwin does not mention when the sport began on Gibraltar, but he does explicitly use the term "Tag Rugby" to describe the game.
Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 5 June Algora Publishing, 1 April Statistics Office of the Government of Gibraltar.
The civilian population includes Gibraltarian residents, other British residents including the wives and families of UK-based servicemen, but not the servicemen themselves and non-British residents.
Visitors and transients are not included. In , this broke down into 23, native-born citizens, 3, UK British citizens and 2, others, making a total population of 29, On census night, there were 31, people present in Gibraltar.
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Other Disputed status of Gibraltar Sovereignty referendum, Sovereignty referendum, Gibraltar and Brexit Disputed status of the isthmus History of nationality Gibraltar passport Gibraltar identity card Visa policy Political development in modern Gibraltar.
Gibraltar portal Other countries. Habsburg occupation. Appointed by Archduke Charles. Major-General John Shrimpton , Governor. Major-General Roger Elliott , Governor.
Brigadier-General Thomas Stanwix , Governor. General The Earl of Portmore , Governor. General Joseph Sabine , Governor.
The Earl of Home , Governor. Major-General John Parslow , acting Governor. John Irwin , acting Governor. Robert Boyd , acting Governor.
George Augustus Eliott , Governor. The Lord Heathfield , Governor. Sir Robert Boyd , acting Governor. Sir Robert Boyd , Governor.
Henry Clinton , Governor. The Duke of Kent. Sir Hew Dalrymple , acting Governor. Sir John Cradock , acting Governor. Brigadier-General John Smith , acting Governor.
Colin Campbell , acting Governor. Sir George Don , acting Governor. The Earl of Chatham , Governor.
Gibraltar becomes a British Crown colony. Sir William Houston , acting Governor. Sir Alexander Woodford , Governor.
Sir Robert Wilson , Governor. Sir Robert Gardiner , Governor. Sir James Fergusson , Governor. Sir William Codrington , Governor.
Sir Richard Airey , Governor. Sir William Williams , Governor. The Lord Napier of Magdala , Governor.